But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness, you are blessed. And do not fear their intimidation, and do not be troubled, but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you yet with gentleness and reverence; and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame.  1 Peter 3: 14-16

The Text of the Gospels - Apologetic Report
Thursday, 14 June 2018 01:01

What's New at Robert Waltz's ENTTC

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For online introductions to the materials involved in New Testament Textual Criticism, few sites can compete with Robert Waltz’s Encyclopedia of NewTestament Textual Criticism. It was updated relatively recently, which seems to have had the effect of pushing together the words that used...

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Friday, 08 June 2018 18:03

Meet Codex Boernerianus (012)

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           Two months ago (April 2018) we met Codex Sangallensis (a.k.a. Codex Δ (Delta), or 037), an important manuscript of the Gospels, in which the Greek text is accompanied by an interlinear Latin translation. (This Latin text...

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Saturday, 02 June 2018 09:00

Mark 16:9-20 - My Reply to Michael Kruger

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By request, here is a reconstructed transcript of a lecture I gave last year, in which I responded to some claims made by Dr. Michael J. Kruger about Mark 16:9-20.   
This is a response to a recent lecture about the ending of the Gospel of Mark.  The lecture was given by Dr. Michael J...

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Tuesday, 29 May 2018 06:33

Fourth-century Philemon: P139

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image
           This past May, along with the release of the small fragment formerly known as “First Century Mark,” (P137) two other New Testament papyri were released: a fragment with text from the Gospel of Luke (P138), and a fragment...

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Monday, 28 May 2018 01:57

A Moment Please, Dr. Holmes!

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In a recent article at the Bible Odyssey website, What Are English Translations of the Bible Based On?, Dr. Michael W. Holmes made some claims about the external support for some verses that appear in the text of the New Testament in the...

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Wednesday, 23 May 2018 11:12

First-Century Mark - Finally! But . . .

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First-century Mark is finally published! Elijah Hixson has already reported at the Evangelical Textual Criticism blog that in the latest issue of the journal Oxyrhynchus Papyri – Graeco-Roman Memoirs,#LXXXIII, Dirk Obbink – the specialist who, according to Scott Carroll, had been...

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Monday, 14 May 2018 17:11

N-A in 2018 and W-H in 1881: How Similar?

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image Eldon Jay Epp
Eldon Jay Epp, in his 1974 essay, The Twentieth Century Interlude in New Testament Textual Criticism (published in the Journal of Biblical Literature), mentioned the result of a comparison made by Kurt Aland between the compilation of the Greek New Testament that was produced by...

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Wednesday, 09 May 2018 16:06

Papyrus 45 vs. Codex K in Luke 12

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imageP45 - the fragment in Austria
 
It’s time for some text-critical hand-to-hand combat!  Which manuscript has the more accurate text of Luke 12:23-33: Papyrus 45 or Codex Cyprius? 
Before we find out, let’s consider each manuscript’s background:  Papyrus 45 was...

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Saturday, 05 May 2018 07:26

Movie Review: Fragments of Truthiness

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If you’re looking for a high-quality video presentation of some of the most important early Greek manuscripts known to exist, Fragments of Truth is worth watching.  Fred Sprinkle, the graphics-designer responsible for the excellent visuals which appear throughout the...

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Monday, 30 April 2018 16:36

Glossary of Textual Criticism: N-Z

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Nomina sacra (singular:  nomen sacrum):  sacred names which were usually written in contracted form by copyists.  Usually the contractions consist of two letters – the first letter of the word and the final letter – but in some manuscripts the contractions have a...

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Friday, 27 April 2018 12:36

Glossary of Textual Criticism: D-M

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(Continuing the Glossary of Textual Criticism)Diorthotes:The proof-reader and general overseer of the production of manuscripts in a scriptorium.  
Dittography: A scribal mistake in which what should be written once is written twice. This can describe the repetition of a single...

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Wednesday, 25 April 2018 12:56

Glossary of Textual Criticism: A-C

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“Understandest thou what thou readest?”
That was Philip’s question to the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8:30, as rendered in the KJV. Every field of scientific study involves some specialized terms, or jargon, which might initially be difficult to understand, and New Testament...

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Saturday, 21 April 2018 10:14

Meet 0269: A Little-known Uncial Fragment

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image        0269Right-side up    

Uncial 0269 is a somewhat unusual manuscript: it is a one-leaf fragment embedded within another manuscript, Codex Blenheimus (0133, a.k.a. Codex ϒ (Upsilon), and known previously – before the discovery of Codex...

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Saturday, 14 April 2018 02:30

Five Palimpsests

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imageMark 16:14-20 in Codex C,with later Greek text written over it.
 
Today, let’s take a look at some palimpsests among the New Testament manuscripts. What is a palimpsest? A palimpsest – so-called because the parchment has been...

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Tuesday, 10 April 2018 16:22

Codex Sangallensis: The Amplified Vulgate

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Codex Sangallensis (Δ, 037) is best-known for its Greek text; it is one of the “consistently cited...

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Wednesday, 04 April 2018 13:41

Codex Delta: Block-Mixed?

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image   Mark 16:1b-17ain Codex Sangallensis.(verse-numbers added)
 
Codex Δ (037, Sangallensis), which we described in the previous post, is possibly the most important Greek-Latin Gospels-manuscripts produced in medieval Europe.  Bruce Metzger, in his...

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Tuesday, 03 April 2018 10:43

Meet Codex Delta (037, Sangallensis)

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imageCodex Delta - Lk. 22:24-33a(verse numbers superimposed)
Hundreds of manuscripts reside in the Abbey Library of Saint Gallen in Switzerland; over 600 of them have been digitized and can be read online. In today’s post (and...

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Saturday, 31 March 2018 16:10

News: New Translation from Crossway and Holman

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image            The NOT - deluxe leatherbound edition

As Christians around the world celebrate the resurrection of Christ this weekend, two major publishing-houses have announced the end-result of an ongoing co-operative project: the New Orthodox Translation.&nbsp...

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Thursday, 29 March 2018 19:07

Review: A Commentary on Textual Additions

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            Philip W. Comfort’s A Commentary on Textual Additions to the New Testament answers a question that many users of the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece have asked:  where are the editors taking us?  Or to put it another way:  if...

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Saturday, 24 March 2018 13:08

The Passion Translation - Some Problems

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What’s unique about The Passion Translation – a recent translation of the New Testament, Psalms, Proverbs, and the Song of Songs by Brian Simmons? Three things, or, three kinds of things: its origins, its doctrinal bias, and its highly unusual base-text.

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Let’s take a look at one of the earliest manuscripts of Paul’s epistle to the Galatians: 0176, a small uncial fragment from the 400s (or, perhaps, the late 300s). Researcher Brice Jones described 0176 back in 2015 as the remains of a “miniature codex,” that...

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Sunday, 11 March 2018 06:48

The STEPBible - With David Instone-Brewer

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imageDr. David Instone-Brewer
 
Today, special guest Dr. David Instone-Brewerjoins us to talk about the STEPBible, a very useful – and free – digital resource for Bible-related research. The STEPBible – at www.STEPBib...

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Monday, 05 March 2018 01:50

Want to Learn New Testament Greek?

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            There are many free resources available online for people who wish to gain the ability to read the New Testament in the language in which it was written.  Here are some resources that should be considered by those who want to learn (or re-learn) how to...

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Wednesday, 28 February 2018 10:45

John 3:13: The Son of Man Who is in Heaven

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           Today we shall look into the question of whether or not the phrase “who is in heaven”was in the original text of John 3:13.
           In two recently published...

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Monday, 12 February 2018 17:07

Hand to Hand Combat: P46 versus GA 384

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Let’s have some hand-to-hand combat!  Today’s arena is the first eleven verses of chapter 15 of First Corinthians, in which Paul describes some of the historical evidence for the resurrection of Christ.  Our competitors are Papyrus 46 (the earliest substantial Greek manuscript...

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