But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness, you are blessed. And do not fear their intimidation, and do not be troubled, but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you yet with gentleness and reverence; and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame.  1 Peter 3: 14-16

The Text of the Gospels - Apologetic Report
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           Today, let’s take a close look at part of 093 – a small fragment that contains text from Acts 24:22-26, and text from First Peter 2:22-3:7. (I will focus here especially on the text from Acts. 093 is a palimps...

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Tuesday, 13 August 2019 14:49

Mary, Martha, and John 11

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           Back in 2016, an interesting text-critical thesis was proposed in Harvard Theological Review:  unusual readings in Papyrus 66, considered alongside textual variants in many other manuscripts, indicate that the character...

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Tuesday, 06 August 2019 06:58

Mark 10:24: Is It Easy to Enter the Kingdom?

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           In Mark 10:23, Jesus told His followers, “How difficult it is for those who have riches to enter the kingdom of God.” This was just after a young man with many possessions had gone away from Jesus, after Jesus had...

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Friday, 02 August 2019 07:43

News: The Durham Gospels is Online!

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Nice try, Viking marauders, but we still have most of it!
The Durham Gospels, an important Latin manuscript, has recently been digitized and made available online.  It is just one of the many manuscripts that...

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Saturday, 13 July 2019 10:11

Hort's Lecture on Origen

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imageFenton John Anthony Hort
           In 1890, Fenton John Anthony Hort (half of the Westcott-Hort duo) delivered a series of six lectures on ante-Nicene fathers.  They were published in 1895, a few years after his death.  What...

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Friday, 12 July 2019 00:58

Hort's Lecture on Tertullian and Cyprian

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imageFenton John Anthony Hort
           In 1890, Fenton John Anthony Hort (half of the Westcott-Hort duo) delivered a series of six lectures on ante-Nicene fathers.  They were published in 1895, a few years after his death.  What...

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imageFenton John Anthony Hort

            In 1890, Fenton John Anthony Hort (half of the Westcott-Hort duo) delivered a series of six lectures on ante-Nicene fathers.  They were published in 1895, a few years after his death.  What follows here, with...

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Tuesday, 09 July 2019 13:29

Hort's Lecture on Justin and Irenaeus

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 imageFenton John Anthony Hort          In 1890, Fenton John Anthony Hort (half of the Westcott-Hort duo) delivered a series of six lectures on ante-Nicene fathers.  They were published in 1895, a few years after his death.  What...

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Monday, 08 July 2019 04:58

Hort's Lecture on Ignatius and Polycarp

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     imageFenton John Anthony Hort      In 1890, Fenton John Anthony Hort (half of the Westcott-Hort duo) delivered a series of six lectures on ante-Nicene fathers.  They were published in 1895, a few years after his death.  What follows here, with...

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 imageFenton John Anthony Hort(1828-1892)          In 1890, Fenton John Anthony Hort (half of the Westcott-Hort duo) delivered a series of six lectures on ante-Nicene fathers.  They were published in 1895, a few years after his death.  What follows here, with...

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Thursday, 04 July 2019 06:00

Galatians 5:22-23: Have We Lost Some Fruit?

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            “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faithfulness, meekness, temperance:  against such there is no law.”  So reads Galatians 5:22-23 in the King James...

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image            Today, let’s take a look at An Introduction to the Greek New Testament, by Dirk Jongkind, a researcher at Cambridge(Ph.D. 2005, Cambridge).  The Greek New Testament that is referred to the Tyndale House edition of the Greek New...

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           It is often claimed that the text in older manuscripts is more accurate than the text in younger manuscripts. At first glance, this makes sense: fewer years implies fewer opportunities for copyists to corrupt the text.&nb...

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Monday, 17 June 2019 08:03

Minuscule 1424 and the Pericope Adulterae

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  imageMS 1187's text of John 7:53-8:11is similar to the text in the margin of 1424.And they share a large annotation.         In the super-sparse apparatus of the Tyndale House edition of the Greek New Testament, a note mentions that...

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Friday, 31 May 2019 15:36

Bill Mounce versus Reality

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 imageDr. Bill Mounce          In the course of a recent review of the Tyndale House Greek New Testament, Dr. Bill Mounce stated the following:
           “The number one thing that...

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Monday, 27 May 2019 05:48

Maybe-Scripture-But-Maybe-Not???

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           “So do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward.” – Hebrews 10:35 (EHV)
           When one version of the New Testament has a verse that is...

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Wednesday, 22 May 2019 15:09

How to Read a Greek Gospels Manuscript

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            Today, let’s look into how to read a Greek manuscript of the Gospels – an important skill that every New Testament textual critic should have.  If you do not already know some New Testament Greek, use This List of Free Resources...

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Friday, 17 May 2019 04:19

First Century Mark: Better Pictures

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           Several months have passed since the publication of the small papyrus fragment that was called “First-Century Mark” prior to its release. This small two-sided fragment, which contains text from Mark 1:7-9 and Mark...

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Wednesday, 15 May 2019 16:52

John 7:8: Not, Not Yet, or Nothing?

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            Perhaps there is no textual contest anywhere in the New Testament in which the internal evidence and external evidence point more strongly to opposite conclusions than in John 7:8. In the vast majority of manuscripts, when Jesus’...

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image           In Hort’s 1881 Introduction, he proposed that the Syrian (Byzantine) Text is derivative of the Alexandrian and Western text-types. He based his argument partly on conflations – an argument which I addressed earlier...

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Saturday, 27 April 2019 09:33

Conflations (Part 2)

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           Today we continue our consideration of conflations.
           Without Hort’s use of conflations as evidence that the Byzantine Text is derivative of the Alexandrian and...

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Wednesday, 24 April 2019 14:26

Conflations (Part 1)

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            What is a conflation?  A conflation is the effect of a textual collision.  Suppose a copyist sat down to make a copy of the Gospel of Luke, and checked his primary exemplar by consulting a secondary...

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Friday, 12 April 2019 16:01

Tares Among the Wheat - A Review

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           A series of movies available on Amazon Prime Video includes New Testament textual criticism among the subjects it covers – but not in a good way. Rather than introduce viewers to valid aspects of the field, Christian...

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            Having looked at 180 translation-impacting differences between the Byzantine Text and the text in Codex Sinaiticus in the Synoptic Gospels (60 in Matthew, 60 in Mark, 60 in Luke), today we complete the set, looking at 100 translation-impacting...

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            Continuing the examination of deviations between the text of Codex Sinaiticus and the Byzantine Text in the Gospels, let’s look today at some meaningful differences the two in the Gospel of Luke.  In Luke, Sinaiticus’ text differs from not...

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