But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness, you are blessed. And do not fear their intimidation, and do not be troubled, but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you yet with gentleness and reverence; and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame.  1 Peter 3: 14-16

The Text of the Gospels - Apologetic Report
Friday, 14 December 2018 05:08

Hand-to-Hand Combat: P38 vs. GA 2401 (Round 2)

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            Today, the contest between Papyrus 38 (from the 200s) and minuscule 2401 (from the 1000s) concludes.  In Round 1, we saw the fragmentary text of  Acts 18:27-19:6 on one side of Papyrus 38 (and also saw that it is remarkably less accurate than the...

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Wednesday, 12 December 2018 07:33

Hand-to-Hand Combat: P38 vs. GA 2401 (Round 1)

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            “The older the manuscript, the better the text” . . . right?  It seems perfectly reasonable to expect the text in manuscripts closer to the original documents to be more accurate than the text in medieval manuscripts.  But at the...

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Monday, 10 December 2018 07:48

Mark 16:9-20, Inerrancy, and Liberal Propaganda

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            Have you ever been told that textual variants have no impact on Christian doctrine? Of course you have, if you have read text-critical handbooks by evangelical authors. However, some textual variants exist which are capable of having a strong...

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Sunday, 02 December 2018 19:24

Cherry-picking in Edinburgh

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           Have you ever been misled by “cherry-picking”?  I bought a new car last week! – a new Hot Wheels car. I won half a million dollars yesterday! – in a game of Monopoly. Details matter,...

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Thursday, 29 November 2018 14:12

Hand to Hand Combat: B, Aleph, and 1295 in Luke 2:1-12

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            How much more reliable are ancient manuscripts than medieval manuscripts?  Today, as the Christmas season approaches, we will look into that question by comparing Luke 2:1-12 – a passage about the birth of Christ – in the forms in which it...

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Tuesday, 27 November 2018 09:58

Hand to Hand Combat: B and Aleph vs. 6 and 2401

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How reliable are the manuscripts Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, compared to medieval manuscripts? Ask that question to promoters of translations based on the Nestle-Aland compilation – versions such as the NIV, NLT, ESV, and CSB – and the answer you receive will very probably be something...

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         Let’s continue looking into the textual contest at the end of Matthew 6:13: the basic question is, are the words “For yours is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory forever, Amen” – ὅτι...

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imageMatthew 6:13b in minuscule 13.
         At the close of Matthew 6:13, most modern versions of the New Testament place the phrase, “For yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever; Amen” in a footnote, whereas the KJV, NKJV, WEB,...

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            Seminary students unfamiliar with New Testament textual criticism may learn a lot from Textual Criticism of the Bible, by Amy Anderson and Wendy Widder, recently published by Lexham Press.  (The same volume includes an introduction to the textual...

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Thursday, 08 November 2018 06:34

Lessons from GA 2437

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            Practically every manuscript of the Gospels is textually interesting in some way.  Today, let’s take a look at the medieval minuscule 2437 – the oldest New Testament manuscript in South America – and see what we can learn from its...

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Monday, 05 November 2018 19:21

Biblica Versus the Facts About Added Verses

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            Recently the website of Biblica – formerly known as the United Bible Societies – featured a brief video, Do Modern Bibles Such as the NIV Leave Out Verses?”.  Biblica’s answer to that question was, basically, that...

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Saturday, 27 October 2018 05:01

Todd Friel, the KJV, and Wretched Oversimplifications

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I’m not sure that Todd Friel asserted anything in his recent Wretched program in which he addressed KJV-Onlyism.  But amid all the question-raising, question-rephrasing, tangent-chasing, suggestion-making, and excerpt-taking from...

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Saturday, 20 October 2018 15:45

Meet GA 804: A Pocketful of Surprises

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           When a team of researchers from the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts visited Greece this past winter, they photographed a particularly interesting little Gospels-manuscript that resides at the Library of the...

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Monday, 15 October 2018 01:15

Book Review: The Bible Illuminated

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When textual critics study a New Testament manuscript, their primary focus is the text that it contains. Dr. Karen York, who served until January 2018 as the Director of the Curatorial Department of the Museum of the Bible, explores...

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Friday, 05 October 2018 12:33

Mark 2:17 - Calling Sinners

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            At the end of Mark 2:17, there is a textual variant that has an impact on translation.  Strangely, there is no indication in the textual apparatus of the 27th edition of the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graecethat this contest exists.  Nor is it...

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Friday, 28 September 2018 02:12

Mark 2:16 - Eating and Drinking with Sinners

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            In Mark 2:16, there are several interesting textual contests.  Today I will focus on three of them.  First, did Mark refer to “the scribes of the Pharisees,” or to “the scribes and the Pharisees”?  Second, is the...

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Friday, 21 September 2018 12:10

Mark 16:9-20 and the Strange Scholarship of BAR

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This is a sequel to my post Mark 16:9-20 and Early Patristic Evidence.  A fellow researcher, upon encountering my post, referred me to an article at the website of the Biblical Archaeology Review magazine:  James Tabor’s The Strange Ending of the Gospel of Mark...

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Wednesday, 19 September 2018 06:28

Mark 16:9-20 and Early Patristic Evidence

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           New Testament scholars continue to spread misinformation about Mark 16:9-20. The latest perpetrator is Dr. Zachary Cole, a professor at Union Theological College. Dr. Cole received his master’s degree from Dallas...

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Monday, 17 September 2018 15:18

GA 1333 and the Story of the Adulteress

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            It is difficult to exaggerate the extent of misinformation that is circulating in various commentaries regarding the pericope adulterae, or story about the adulteress (found in John 7:53-8:11 in most English Bibles, and in most Greek manuscripts). Late...

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Thursday, 06 September 2018 13:12

Matthew 14:24 - In the Middle of the Sea

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image Matthew 14:24 in Codex L.
In Matthew 14:24, as Matthew sets the stage for Jesus’ miraculous walk upon the Sea of Galilee, there is a clear difference between the Byzantine Text and the Nestle-Aland/UBS compilation. NA27 (followed by the CSB, ESV, NET, NIV, and NASB) reads...

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Tuesday, 04 September 2018 06:22

Mark 7:3-4: Immerse or Pour, and Other Questions

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In Mark 7:3-4, Mark makes a parenthetical remark in which three textual contests occur:
(1)      How did the Pharisees and all the Jews wash their hands: did they wash often (πυκνά), or did they wash with the fist (πυγμ...

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Saturday, 25 August 2018 12:01

The Comma Johanneum and Greek Grammar

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A typical Greek manuscript of First John,without the Comma Johanneum.
Today we welcome a special guest, Dr. Barry Hofstetter, to share a post that pertains to an aspect of the textual question about First John 5:7.

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Wednesday, 01 August 2018 05:35

Luke 24:13: Do You Know the Way to Emmaus?

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imageCodex Sinaiticus (c. 350) (replica)
How far was the village of Emmaus from the city of Jerusalem?  Sixty stadia (the equivalent of approximately 6.9 modern miles, reckoning one Roman stadium as 607 feet) or 160 stadia (the equivalent of...

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Saturday, 21 July 2018 13:03

Mark 6:22 - Whose Daughter Danced?

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             The first phrase in Mark 6:22 says different things depending on which version is read:  
                   
Mark 6:22 (NET):  “When...

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Monday, 16 July 2018 17:54

Video: Mark 16:9-20 and the Parrot Problem

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It’s not easy to make a high-quality slide-show video!  So, after several attempts, I settled for a low-quality, adequate slide-show video with music and birds.
            In three minutes, Mark 16:9-20 and the Parrot...

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