But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness, you are blessed. And do not fear their intimidation, and do not be troubled, but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you yet with gentleness and reverence; and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame.  1 Peter 3: 14-16

The Text of the Gospels - Apologetic Report
Monday, 15 October 2018 01:15

Book Review: The Bible Illuminated

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When textual critics study a New Testament manuscript, their primary focus is the text that it contains. Dr. Karen York, who served until January 2018 as the Director of the Curatorial Department of the Museum of the Bible, explores...

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Friday, 05 October 2018 12:33

Mark 2:17 - Calling Sinners

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            At the end of Mark 2:17, there is a textual variant that has an impact on translation.  Strangely, there is no indication in the textual apparatus of the 27th edition of the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graecethat this contest exists.  Nor is it...

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Friday, 28 September 2018 02:12

Mark 2:16 - Eating and Drinking with Sinners

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            In Mark 2:16, there are several interesting textual contests.  Today I will focus on three of them.  First, did Mark refer to “the scribes of the Pharisees,” or to “the scribes and the Pharisees”?  Second, is the...

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Friday, 21 September 2018 12:10

Mark 16:9-20 and the Strange Scholarship of BAR

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This is a sequel to my post Mark 16:9-20 and Early Patristic Evidence.  A fellow researcher, upon encountering my post, referred me to an article at the website of the Biblical Archaeology Review magazine:  James Tabor’s The Strange Ending of the Gospel of Mark...

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Wednesday, 19 September 2018 06:28

Mark 16:9-20 and Early Patristic Evidence

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           New Testament scholars continue to spread misinformation about Mark 16:9-20. The latest perpetrator is Dr. Zachary Cole, a professor at Union Theological College. Dr. Cole received his master’s degree from Dallas...

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Monday, 17 September 2018 15:18

GA 1333 and the Story of the Adulteress

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            It is difficult to exaggerate the extent of misinformation that is circulating in various commentaries regarding the pericope adulterae, or story about the adulteress (found in John 7:53-8:11 in most English Bibles, and in most Greek manuscripts). Late...

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Thursday, 06 September 2018 13:12

Matthew 14:24 - In the Middle of the Sea

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image Matthew 14:24 in Codex L.
In Matthew 14:24, as Matthew sets the stage for Jesus’ miraculous walk upon the Sea of Galilee, there is a clear difference between the Byzantine Text and the Nestle-Aland/UBS compilation. NA27 (followed by the CSB, ESV, NET, NIV, and NASB) reads...

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Tuesday, 04 September 2018 06:22

Mark 7:3-4: Immerse or Pour, and Other Questions

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In Mark 7:3-4, Mark makes a parenthetical remark in which three textual contests occur:
(1)      How did the Pharisees and all the Jews wash their hands: did they wash often (πυκνά), or did they wash with the fist (πυγμ...

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Saturday, 25 August 2018 12:01

The Comma Johanneum and Greek Grammar

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A typical Greek manuscript of First John,without the Comma Johanneum.
Today we welcome a special guest, Dr. Barry Hofstetter, to share a post that pertains to an aspect of the textual question about First John 5:7.

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Wednesday, 01 August 2018 05:35

Luke 24:13: Do You Know the Way to Emmaus?

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imageCodex Sinaiticus (c. 350) (replica)
How far was the village of Emmaus from the city of Jerusalem?  Sixty stadia (the equivalent of approximately 6.9 modern miles, reckoning one Roman stadium as 607 feet) or 160 stadia (the equivalent of...

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Saturday, 21 July 2018 13:03

Mark 6:22 - Whose Daughter Danced?

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             The first phrase in Mark 6:22 says different things depending on which version is read:  
                   
Mark 6:22 (NET):  “When...

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Monday, 16 July 2018 17:54

Video: Mark 16:9-20 and the Parrot Problem

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It’s not easy to make a high-quality slide-show video!  So, after several attempts, I settled for a low-quality, adequate slide-show video with music and birds.
            In three minutes, Mark 16:9-20 and the Parrot...

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Friday, 13 July 2018 04:10

What Darkened Sinaiticus?

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Last year, I wrote a three-part series of posts refuting a conspiracy-claim to the effect that the famous Codex Sinaiticus is a forgery made in the 1800s. Alas, the conspiracy theorists – particularly David W. Daniels of Chick Publications, assisted by Steven Avery – have...

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Wednesday, 11 July 2018 05:23

Resurrecting the Dead with MSI

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imageGeorgian NF 19, 57v.One of the New Finds manuscriptsat St. Catherine's monastery.
As news of the contents of the Sinai Palimpsests Project spreads, more and more people are bound to wonder about what multi-spectral imaging is and how it works. Just how can researchers read a text after a...

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imageGeorgian NF 19, 57v -reconstructed lower writing.
       Last month, I briefly described many of the manuscripts in a collection of palimpsests (recycled manuscripts) that are being studied by the Sinai Palimpsests Project – including 15 Greek manuscripts of New...

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Friday, 06 July 2018 11:57

The Sinaitic Syriac: Now in Color!

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 imageThe old black and white photos of the pages of the Sinaitic Syriacshow that there is writing (including much of the Gospels)underneath the more recent writing. In the new MSI-enhanced images,the older text can be not only detected, but read.          The...

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Wednesday, 27 June 2018 11:19

News: Manuscripts at Saint Catherine's

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For at least the past five years, reports have circulated about the contents of palimpsests (recycled manuscripts) that were discovered in 1975 at Saint Catherine’s monastery. National Geographic, Smithsonian Magazine, The Atlantic, ScienceBlog, Ancient-Origins, and the BBC have all...

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Saturday, 23 June 2018 11:03

Hand to Hand Combat: Codex D vs 2397

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imageGA 2397 - The end of John,with a colophon.
(“Older is better?”  Shall we test that?)
In the year 1303, a copyist named Hyacinthus finished the text of a Greek manuscript of the Gospels.  Below...

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image Mark 16:9-20 in Sinai Gr. 212.
Among the manuscripts in the Sinai Palimpsests Project’s collection of newly photographed manuscripts, Greek 212 stands out as one which has New Testament texts as its primary upper writing.  This...

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imageDr. Stephen C. Carlson
Joining us today is Dr. Stephen C. Carlson, a professor at the AustralianCatholicUniversity. A former lawyer, in 2012 Dr. Carlson received a Ph. D. at Duke University; his dissertation consisted of an attempt to reconstruct the transmission-history of the text of Galatians,...

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Thursday, 14 June 2018 01:01

What's New at Robert Waltz's ENTTC

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For online introductions to the materials involved in New Testament Textual Criticism, few sites can compete with Robert Waltz’s Encyclopedia of NewTestament Textual Criticism. It was updated relatively recently, which seems to have had the effect of pushing together the words that used...

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Friday, 08 June 2018 18:03

Meet Codex Boernerianus (012)

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           Two months ago (April 2018) we met Codex Sangallensis (a.k.a. Codex Δ (Delta), or 037), an important manuscript of the Gospels, in which the Greek text is accompanied by an interlinear Latin translation. (This Latin text...

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Saturday, 02 June 2018 09:00

Mark 16:9-20 - My Reply to Michael Kruger

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By request, here is a reconstructed transcript of a lecture I gave last year, in which I responded to some claims made by Dr. Michael J. Kruger about Mark 16:9-20.   
This is a response to a recent lecture about the ending of the Gospel of Mark.  The lecture was given by Dr. Michael J...

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Tuesday, 29 May 2018 06:33

Fourth-century Philemon: P139

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           This past May, along with the release of the small fragment formerly known as “First Century Mark,” (P137) two other New Testament papyri were released: a fragment with text from the Gospel of Luke (P138), and a fragment...

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Monday, 28 May 2018 01:57

A Moment Please, Dr. Holmes!

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In a recent article at the Bible Odyssey website, What Are English Translations of the Bible Based On?, Dr. Michael W. Holmes made some claims about the external support for some verses that appear in the text of the New Testament in the...

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