But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness, you are blessed. And do not fear their intimidation, and do not be troubled, but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you yet with gentleness and reverence; and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame.  1 Peter 3: 14-16

The Text of the Gospels - Apologetic Report
Friday, 10 November 2017 13:41

If In Doubt, Sort It Out

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 imageCurious incidentsin the Byzantine Text.          “If in doubt, don’t throw it out.”  That is the way in which Dan Wallace has asserted that Byzantine copyists handled the text of the New Testament when they had two exemplars that said two...

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Tuesday, 07 November 2017 15:06

The Tyndale House Greek New Testament

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image
             The newly published Tyndale House edition of the Greek New Testament (THEGNT) is a primarily Alexandrian text, with some cautious deviations from the Nestle-Aland compilation, and with improved spelling.  Before describing its text in more...

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Saturday, 04 November 2017 10:23

Matthew 12:47 and Homoioteleuton

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imageMatthew 12:45b-50 in theESV Reader's Gospels.Where's verse 47?

In the English Standard Version, in the passage about the visit of Jesus’ mother and brothers in Matthew 12:46-50, there is a strange feature:  there is no verse 47; it is in the...

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Friday, 03 November 2017 05:56

Mark 2:16 and Homoioteleuton

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            At the end of Mark 2:16, there is a textual contest:  do the scribes and Pharisees ask why Jesus eats with tax collectors and sinners, or do they ask why Jesus eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners?
       &nb...

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        Today, let’s take a look at the text of John 4:17.  This verse is not exactly at the epicenter of text-critical debates, but the evidence pertaining to it is nevertheless interesting.  In all English versions, in a discussion...

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Friday, 27 October 2017 14:48

Equitable Eclecticism - Part 2

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(Continuing the presentation of a slightly updated version of my 2010 essay Equitable Eclecticism:  The Future of New Testament Textual Criticism)

Competing Analytical Approaches

In the Byzantine Priority view, Greek manuscripts which display the Byzantine Text are considered superior witnesses...

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Thursday, 26 October 2017 13:56

Equitable Eclecticism - Part 1

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            In 2010, I wrote an essay called Equitable Eclecticism:  The Future of New Testament Textual Criticism, and included it in the Kindle e-book Assorted Essays on New Testament Textual Criticism.  Since then, I have frequently been asked about how my...

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Tuesday, 17 October 2017 14:42

Papyrus 4 and the Mystery at Coptos

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            First century Matthew!  In 1994, that was how papyrologist Carsten Peter Thiede described Papyrus 64, three fragments written on papyrus, containing Greek text from Matthew 26 (to be precise, Matthew 26:7-8, 10, 14-15, 22-23, and 31-33).  The...

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Monday, 16 October 2017 01:02

ARTMYN's Digital Presentation of Papyrus 66

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imagePapyrus 66 (text shown:  John 1:48-2:3).This seems so old-fashioned now.

I hope to soon present a post about Papyrus 64 and Papyrus 67, but in the course of looking into those fragments, I found an outstanding resource on a much more substantial...

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Tuesday, 10 October 2017 08:42

Codex Laudianus, GA 45, GA 46, GA 57, and Friends

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imageThe Gatehouse at the Bodleian Library           
 
Sir Thomas Bodley (1535-1613) was the namesake of the second-largest library in Great Britain:  the Bodleian Library, on the campus of OxfordUniversity.  This is the Hotel Californiaof libraries; once a book...

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Wednesday, 04 October 2017 19:07

Mark 1:2 (Part 4) - Miscellaneous Evidence

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          Today as we conclude this exploration of the evidence about Mark 1:2, let’s consider some miscellaneous questions.
 
How diverse is the evidence for “in the prophets”?

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Wednesday, 04 October 2017 02:49

Mark 1:2 (Part 3) - Irenaeus and Tatian

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[Continued from the previous post]
 
            Continuing our investigation about the text of Mark 1:2, let’s turn now to Irenaeus, the earliest evidence for Mark 1:2.  Irenaeus had grown up in Asia Minor (he states in Against Heresies 3:3:4 that...

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Tuesday, 03 October 2017 01:09

Mark 1:2 (Part 2) - Origen, Jerome, and Eusebius

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[Continuing from the previous post.]            Once the reading “in Isaiah the prophet” was introduced in Mark 1:2, the puzzlement that it induced invited the erudition of scholars.  The first known commentator to address the problem was Origen, who...

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Sunday, 01 October 2017 02:39

Mark 1:2 - In Isaiah, or In the Prophets?

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[Note:  Readers are encouraged to explore the embedded links in this four-part essay, many of which lead to digital images of Mark 1:2 in manuscripts.]
Part 1:  Reviewing the Greek Manuscript Evidence
            Did Mark 1:2 originally...

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Friday, 22 September 2017 05:02

More Combat: Papyrus 75 vs. Codex A

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            The lopsided victory of minuscule 1324 over Codex Bezae in the previous contest has provoked some stunned members of the audience to clamor for more hand-to-hand combat – and I am pleased to say that a sensational heavyweight match awaits you today,...

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Tuesday, 19 September 2017 06:56

Hand to Hand Combat: Codex D versus 1324

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            It’s time once again for hand-to-hand combat!  Today’s combatants are Codex Bezae and minuscule 1324.  The arena is Luke 8:19-25.
            Codex Bezae, also known as Codex 05 and...

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Thursday, 14 September 2017 02:07

Fact-checking Wallace: GA 2346, 2812, and 137

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            In two earlier posts, we saw that minuscules 138, 264, 1221 do not contain an asterisk at Mark 16:9 to convey scribal doubt about Mark 16:9-20, contrary to a claim spread by Daniel Wallace.  Another manuscript which Wallace says has an asterisk...

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Tuesday, 12 September 2017 17:14

Fact-checking Wallace: GA 264 and 1221

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            In the previous post, we saw that although Daniel Wallace has claimed (in Perspectives on the Ending of Mark:  4 Views, published by Broadman & Holman) that five manuscripts – minuscules 138, 264, 1221, 2346, and 2812 – contain a simple...

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Monday, 11 September 2017 15:35

Fact-checking Wallace: GA 138

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            “Second, the scribe might simply place an asterisk or obelisk in the margin, indicating doubt about these verses.  Such a symbol is found in at least five manuscripts.”  So goes a claim made by Daniel Wallace in his chapter of Perspecti...

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Friday, 08 September 2017 17:40

Versional Manuscripts at the Library of Congress

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            The website of the Library of Congress provides page-views of dozens and dozens of Greek New Testament manuscripts, to which I provided links in earlier posts.  It also contains quite an impressive assortment of versional New Testament manuscripts...

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Thursday, 07 September 2017 13:16

The Photios Manuscripts and More

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            Among the Greek manuscripts overseen by the Jerusalem Patriarchate, there are a few small collections which were included in the group that was photographed by Kenneth Clark’s expedition in 1949-1950, with the larger Sabaand Stavros collections. ...

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Monday, 04 September 2017 09:57

The Adulteress in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

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imageThe Church of the Holy Sepulchre

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalemhas a long and distinguished history.  A church building on its site was built in the days of Constantine, and was destroyed by Persians in 614.  It was soon rebuilt, but it was...

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Saturday, 02 September 2017 01:52

The Stavros Collection - More MSS at Jerusalem

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            Among the manuscripts kept by the Jerusalem Patriarchate is the Hagios Stavros collection, which formerly (as far as I can tell) was housed on Cyprus.  Images of those manuscripts, except for some relatively young copies, have been released by the Libra...

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Thursday, 31 August 2017 14:48

Seventy-seven Manuscripts from Jerusalem

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imageThe Mar Saba Monastery
 
In the year 483, a monk named Sabbas founded a monastery about eight miles east of Bethlehemin the rugged KidronValley.  This monastery – the Holy Lavra of Saint Sabbas the Sanctified – gradually grew into a highly...

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Thursday, 24 August 2017 17:37

Fortunatianus Speaks!

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image            Fortunatianus’ Latin commentary on the Gospels, written c. 350 – about the same time as the production of Codex Sinaiticus, “The world’s oldest Bible” – has been found, edited, and translated!  The announcement of...

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