But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness, you are blessed. And do not fear their intimidation, and do not be troubled, but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you yet with gentleness and reverence; and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame.  1 Peter 3: 14-16

The Text of the Gospels - Apologetic Report
Thursday, 21 February 2019 17:59

Short Western Readings in Mark 1-4

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“The Western text is so inclined to addition that, if it omits any reading found elsewhere, the probability is that it does so because the...

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Monday, 18 February 2019 10:33

Erasmus' Manuscript of Revelation

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           Erasmus’ first edition of the printed Greek New Testament – it was released by the printer Johann Froben in 1516 – has several famous features. One of them involves the way Erasmus treated the last six verses...

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Friday, 15 February 2019 03:19

James White and the NA/UBS Compilation

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           “So do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward.” – Hebrews 10:35 (EHV)
           When one version of the New Testament has a verse, and...

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Thursday, 07 February 2019 16:32

Parablepsis: When Nothing Is Something

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Parablepsis is what happens when a copyist’s line of sight drifts from one word or set of letters in his master-copy to the same (or similar) word or set of letters a little further along in his master-copy, accidentally skipping the words or...

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Thursday, 31 January 2019 11:10

John 1:18 - The Only Begotten Son

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In the preceding three posts about John 1:18, we have considered (1) the case for rendering μονογενὴς as “only begotten,” (2) some patristic...

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Tuesday, 22 January 2019 12:37

John 1:18 - Sinaiticus: The Devil in the Details

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In the two previous posts, I examined (a) the meaning of the term μονογενὴς, concluding that “only begotten” is an entirely proper rendering, and (b) some...

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Monday, 21 January 2019 11:40

John 1:18 - Some Patristic Evidence

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imageJohn 1:17b-18 in Codex Alexandrinus.
John 1:18 contains one of the most significant textual variants in the New Testament:  did John write ὁ μονογενὴς υἱός –...

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Saturday, 19 January 2019 17:27

John 1:18 - What Does Μονογενὴς Mean?

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            The major English versions of the New Testament are inconsistent in their renderings of the Greek term μονογενὴς – and they are remarkably inconsistent in their rendering of the term in John 1:18b.&nb...

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Wednesday, 16 January 2019 12:57

The English Hexapla - You Should Get This!

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            Usually when the term “Hexapla” is used, it refers to a project of the third-century theologian Origen in which the text of the Old Testament books was arranged in six columns, presenting (1) the Hebrew text, (2) a Greek transliteration of...

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Thursday, 10 January 2019 12:42

The Story of the Bible - A Review

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           If you have ever wondered about the origins of the Bible, and about the history of its text, then you should read Larry Stone’s 2010 book The Story of the Bible. In nine chapters, Stone reviews the Bible’s...

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Sunday, 06 January 2019 16:07

Orm and the Ormulum

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imageMS Junias 1 at the Bodleian Library
            Orm!  You may recognize the name of Aquaman’s half-brother who, in a recent movie, aspires to lead the undersea realm of Atlantis in a war against us surface-dwellers.  In the history of the English Bible,...

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Thursday, 03 January 2019 15:04

The Mumpsimus Mentality

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           In the summer of 1516, Desiderius Erasmus, who had compiled the first published printed Greek New Testament earlier that year, wrote an interesting letter to his friend Henry Bollock.  In that letter, he described his frustration with some people...

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           In 2017, the Evangelical Heritage Translation of the New Testament and Psalms was published. Let’s take a look at this new translation (focusing on the New Testament portion)!   
     &nb...

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Saturday, 29 December 2018 02:20

Do Byzantine MSS Have Less Disagreements? (Part 3)

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            In part 1 and 2 of this investigation, we compared the differences between Vaticanus and Sinaiticus in Luke 19 to the differences between Codex Alexandrinus and minuscule 2474 in the same passage, and found that although B andÀ disagree 35 times,...

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Friday, 28 December 2018 04:00

Do Byzantine MSS Have Less Disagreements? (Part 2)

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            Today we continue to look into a question about the rates of disagreements in the two main Alexandrian manuscripts (Vaticanus and Sinaiticus), asking if their rate or disagreement is uniquely high compared to other pairs of manuscripts, particularly...

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Thursday, 27 December 2018 03:11

Do Byzantine MSS Have Less Disagreements? (Part 1)

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            In the Gospels, Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticusdisagree 3,036 times. This has been interpreted by some researchers (such as John Burgon, in the late 1800s) as proof that at least one of the two manuscripts which were the main basis for the 1881...

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Tuesday, 25 December 2018 16:32

Matthew 6:33 - The Kingdom of God

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           Matthew 6:33 is a verse which many Christians have committed to memory.  There is a textual contest in this verse, and although it does not drastically change the meaning of the verse, the contest here has some instructive...

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Friday, 14 December 2018 05:08

Hand-to-Hand Combat: P38 vs. GA 2401 (Round 2)

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            Today, the contest between Papyrus 38 (from the 200s) and minuscule 2401 (from the 1000s) concludes.  In Round 1, we saw the fragmentary text of  Acts 18:27-19:6 on one side of Papyrus 38 (and also saw that it is remarkably less accurate than the...

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Wednesday, 12 December 2018 07:33

Hand-to-Hand Combat: P38 vs. GA 2401 (Round 1)

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            “The older the manuscript, the better the text” . . . right?  It seems perfectly reasonable to expect the text in manuscripts closer to the original documents to be more accurate than the text in medieval manuscripts.  But at the...

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Monday, 10 December 2018 07:48

Mark 16:9-20, Inerrancy, and Liberal Propaganda

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            Have you ever been told that textual variants have no impact on Christian doctrine? Of course you have, if you have read text-critical handbooks by evangelical authors. However, some textual variants exist which are capable of having a strong...

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Sunday, 02 December 2018 19:24

Cherry-picking in Edinburgh

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           Have you ever been misled by “cherry-picking”?  I bought a new car last week! – a new Hot Wheels car. I won half a million dollars yesterday! – in a game of Monopoly. Details matter,...

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Thursday, 29 November 2018 14:12

Hand to Hand Combat: B, Aleph, and 1295 in Luke 2:1-12

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            How much more reliable are ancient manuscripts than medieval manuscripts?  Today, as the Christmas season approaches, we will look into that question by comparing Luke 2:1-12 – a passage about the birth of Christ – in the forms in which it...

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Tuesday, 27 November 2018 09:58

Hand to Hand Combat: B and Aleph vs. 6 and 2401

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How reliable are the manuscripts Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, compared to medieval manuscripts? Ask that question to promoters of translations based on the Nestle-Aland compilation – versions such as the NIV, NLT, ESV, and CSB – and the answer you receive will very probably be something...

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         Let’s continue looking into the textual contest at the end of Matthew 6:13: the basic question is, are the words “For yours is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory forever, Amen” – ὅτι...

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imageMatthew 6:13b in minuscule 13.
         At the close of Matthew 6:13, most modern versions of the New Testament place the phrase, “For yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever; Amen” in a footnote, whereas the KJV, NKJV, WEB,...

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