But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness, you are blessed. And do not fear their intimidation, and do not be troubled, but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you yet with gentleness and reverence; and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame.  1 Peter 3: 14-16

The Text of the Gospels - Apologetic Report
Wednesday, 01 August 2018 05:35

Luke 24:13: Do You Know the Way to Emmaus?

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imageCodex Sinaiticus (c. 350) (replica)
How far was the village of Emmaus from the city of Jerusalem?  Sixty stadia (the equivalent of approximately 6.9 modern miles, reckoning one Roman stadium as 607 feet) or 160 stadia (the equivalent of...

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Saturday, 21 July 2018 13:03

Mark 6:22 - Whose Daughter Danced?

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             The first phrase in Mark 6:22 says different things depending on which version is read:  
                   
Mark 6:22 (NET):  “When...

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Monday, 16 July 2018 17:54

Video: Mark 16:9-20 and the Parrot Problem

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It’s not easy to make a high-quality slide-show video!  So, after several attempts, I settled for a low-quality, adequate slide-show video with music and birds.
            In three minutes, Mark 16:9-20 and the Parrot...

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Friday, 13 July 2018 04:10

What Darkened Sinaiticus?

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Last year, I wrote a three-part series of posts refuting a conspiracy-claim to the effect that the famous Codex Sinaiticus is a forgery made in the 1800s. Alas, the conspiracy theorists – particularly David W. Daniels of Chick Publications, assisted by Steven Avery – have...

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Wednesday, 11 July 2018 05:23

Resurrecting the Dead with MSI

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imageGeorgian NF 19, 57v.One of the New Finds manuscriptsat St. Catherine's monastery.
As news of the contents of the Sinai Palimpsests Project spreads, more and more people are bound to wonder about what multi-spectral imaging is and how it works. Just how can researchers read a text after a...

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imageGeorgian NF 19, 57v -reconstructed lower writing.
       Last month, I briefly described many of the manuscripts in a collection of palimpsests (recycled manuscripts) that are being studied by the Sinai Palimpsests Project – including 15 Greek manuscripts of New...

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Friday, 06 July 2018 11:57

The Sinaitic Syriac: Now in Color!

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 imageThe old black and white photos of the pages of the Sinaitic Syriacshow that there is writing (including much of the Gospels)underneath the more recent writing. In the new MSI-enhanced images,the older text can be not only detected, but read.          The...

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Wednesday, 27 June 2018 11:19

News: Manuscripts at Saint Catherine's

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For at least the past five years, reports have circulated about the contents of palimpsests (recycled manuscripts) that were discovered in 1975 at Saint Catherine’s monastery. National Geographic, Smithsonian Magazine, The Atlantic, ScienceBlog, Ancient-Origins, and the BBC have all...

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Saturday, 23 June 2018 11:03

Hand to Hand Combat: Codex D vs 2397

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imageGA 2397 - The end of John,with a colophon.
(“Older is better?”  Shall we test that?)
In the year 1303, a copyist named Hyacinthus finished the text of a Greek manuscript of the Gospels.  Below...

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image Mark 16:9-20 in Sinai Gr. 212.
Among the manuscripts in the Sinai Palimpsests Project’s collection of newly photographed manuscripts, Greek 212 stands out as one which has New Testament texts as its primary upper writing.  This...

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imageDr. Stephen C. Carlson
Joining us today is Dr. Stephen C. Carlson, a professor at the AustralianCatholicUniversity. A former lawyer, in 2012 Dr. Carlson received a Ph. D. at Duke University; his dissertation consisted of an attempt to reconstruct the transmission-history of the text of Galatians,...

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Thursday, 14 June 2018 01:01

What's New at Robert Waltz's ENTTC

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For online introductions to the materials involved in New Testament Textual Criticism, few sites can compete with Robert Waltz’s Encyclopedia of NewTestament Textual Criticism. It was updated relatively recently, which seems to have had the effect of pushing together the words that used...

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Friday, 08 June 2018 18:03

Meet Codex Boernerianus (012)

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           Two months ago (April 2018) we met Codex Sangallensis (a.k.a. Codex Δ (Delta), or 037), an important manuscript of the Gospels, in which the Greek text is accompanied by an interlinear Latin translation. (This Latin text...

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Saturday, 02 June 2018 09:00

Mark 16:9-20 - My Reply to Michael Kruger

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By request, here is a reconstructed transcript of a lecture I gave last year, in which I responded to some claims made by Dr. Michael J. Kruger about Mark 16:9-20.   
This is a response to a recent lecture about the ending of the Gospel of Mark.  The lecture was given by Dr. Michael J...

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Tuesday, 29 May 2018 06:33

Fourth-century Philemon: P139

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           This past May, along with the release of the small fragment formerly known as “First Century Mark,” (P137) two other New Testament papyri were released: a fragment with text from the Gospel of Luke (P138), and a fragment...

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Monday, 28 May 2018 01:57

A Moment Please, Dr. Holmes!

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In a recent article at the Bible Odyssey website, What Are English Translations of the Bible Based On?, Dr. Michael W. Holmes made some claims about the external support for some verses that appear in the text of the New Testament in the...

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Wednesday, 23 May 2018 11:12

First-Century Mark - Finally! But . . .

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First-century Mark is finally published! Elijah Hixson has already reported at the Evangelical Textual Criticism blog that in the latest issue of the journal Oxyrhynchus Papyri – Graeco-Roman Memoirs,#LXXXIII, Dirk Obbink – the specialist who, according to Scott Carroll, had been...

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Monday, 14 May 2018 17:11

N-A in 2018 and W-H in 1881: How Similar?

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image Eldon Jay Epp
Eldon Jay Epp, in his 1974 essay, The Twentieth Century Interlude in New Testament Textual Criticism (published in the Journal of Biblical Literature), mentioned the result of a comparison made by Kurt Aland between the compilation of the Greek New Testament that was produced by...

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Wednesday, 09 May 2018 16:06

Papyrus 45 vs. Codex K in Luke 12

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imageP45 - the fragment in Austria
 
It’s time for some text-critical hand-to-hand combat!  Which manuscript has the more accurate text of Luke 12:23-33: Papyrus 45 or Codex Cyprius? 
Before we find out, let’s consider each manuscript’s background:  Papyrus 45 was...

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Saturday, 05 May 2018 07:26

Movie Review: Fragments of Truthiness

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If you’re looking for a high-quality video presentation of some of the most important early Greek manuscripts known to exist, Fragments of Truth is worth watching.  Fred Sprinkle, the graphics-designer responsible for the excellent visuals which appear throughout the...

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Monday, 30 April 2018 16:36

Glossary of Textual Criticism: N-Z

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Nomina sacra (singular:  nomen sacrum):  sacred names which were usually written in contracted form by copyists.  Usually the contractions consist of two letters – the first letter of the word and the final letter – but in some manuscripts the contractions have a...

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Friday, 27 April 2018 12:36

Glossary of Textual Criticism: D-M

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(Continuing the Glossary of Textual Criticism)Diorthotes:The proof-reader and general overseer of the production of manuscripts in a scriptorium.  
Dittography: A scribal mistake in which what should be written once is written twice. This can describe the repetition of a single...

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Wednesday, 25 April 2018 12:56

Glossary of Textual Criticism: A-C

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“Understandest thou what thou readest?”
That was Philip’s question to the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8:30, as rendered in the KJV. Every field of scientific study involves some specialized terms, or jargon, which might initially be difficult to understand, and New Testament...

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Saturday, 21 April 2018 10:14

Meet 0269: A Little-known Uncial Fragment

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image        0269Right-side up    

Uncial 0269 is a somewhat unusual manuscript: it is a one-leaf fragment embedded within another manuscript, Codex Blenheimus (0133, a.k.a. Codex ϒ (Upsilon), and known previously – before the discovery of Codex...

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Saturday, 14 April 2018 02:30

Five Palimpsests

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imageMark 16:14-20 in Codex C,with later Greek text written over it.
 
Today, let’s take a look at some palimpsests among the New Testament manuscripts. What is a palimpsest? A palimpsest – so-called because the parchment has been...

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